The Angolan Civil War started as a civil war within Angola, then became a proxy war and then after the end of the cold war became just a civil war again. Within a year, he had established a brutal dictatorship that lasted until 1997. Nicaragua gained its independence from the Spanish in 1821. The Iran-Contra affair, as it became known, scandalised the Reagan administration, though much of the blame was shouldered by Reagan’s subordinates. Proxy Wars during the Cold War. URL: https://alphahistory.com/coldwar/coups-proxy-wars/ By the late 1950s, international opposition to Trujillo’s regime was intense. A “cold” war—The US and the USSR never en-gaged in direct combat but competed for influence across the world, thus the “cold” war. Funding: Cold War was mainly funded by the government of the respective countries. Washington maintained its backing for Mobutu, despite his violent and undemocratic rule. Neutral during World War II, Chile’s government later aligned with the United States, signing treaties for financial aid (1947) and military assistance (1952). Whether it was in Vietnam or Afghanistan, the United States and Soviet Union mismanagement of proxy wars destabilized the proxy countries for decades after the respective powers disengaged from the conflict. The Cold War is so named because there was no large scale fighting between the two sides and the two sides never declared war on each other…despite the obvious tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. Though often absent from retellings of the Cold War, the interventions and alliances conceived in Southern Africa between the 1960s and 1980s, had … For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. Take this quiz to test your knowledge of these conflicts. Twenty-one countries came to the aid of South Korea with the United States providing 88% of the troops deployed by the UN. The Cold War was when proxy wars became the most in vogue they have ever been. Instead, they waged proxy wars. They did this in many ways – through diplomacy, treaties and alliances, by providing aid or trade deals and by supplying arms, military equipment and training. While the Cold War itself never escalated into direct confrontation, there were a number of conflicts related to the Cold War around the globe, spanning the entirety of the period usually prescribed to it (March 12, 1947 to December 26, 1991, a total of 44 years, 9 months, and 2 weeks). Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Steve Thompson Many Iranian nationalists remained friendly to Moscow and hostile to Britain and the US. A proxy war is defined as one belligerent fighting another belligerent by supplying, training, directing or otherwise aiding a third belligerent, and inciting the third belligerent against the second. This culminated in Mossadegh’s overthrowing in an August 1953 coup d’etat. The Soviet and Cuban-backed People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) controlled most of Angola by 1980, forcing the withdrawal of American and South African troops. US president Lyndon Johnson ordered 20,000 American troops into the Dominican Republic in April 1965, supposedly to quash a communist revolution. Correct Answer: Proxy wars were used by the United States and Soviet Union as a way to fight one another without resorting to actual war between the two nations. Correct Answer: Proxy wars were used by the United States and Soviet Union as a way to fight one another without resorting to actual war between the two nations. There have been many proxy wars in history, especially during the cold war. Balaguer ruled for much of the next three decades, employing similar tactics to Trujillo and receiving support and aid from Washington. Cold War: Cold War was fought between USA and the erstwhile USSR and both indulged in a number of proxy wars as parts of the long spell of the Cold War. The election of Jimmy Carter in 1976 triggered a shift in US policy and the withdrawal of support for the Somoza dynasty. In 1945 it had a population of around 11 million. Multiple proxy wars stood in for actual conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. The two nuclear-armed superpowers did not wish to exchange blows directly since … The ideological war between communism and capitalism claimed millions of lives and cost untold amounts of money. When the US Congress refused further payments to the Contras, Reagan’s administration raised funds by selling arms to Iran – despite the latter being in the hands of Islamic fundamentalists. A tiny island nation north of Trinidad and Venezuela, Grenada had a population fewer than 100,000 people. Both superpowers were also involved in numerous coups and proxy wars. During the late 1940s and 1950s, Brazil remained a staunch ally of the US, banning communist parties and signing a military treaty with Washington (1952). Some of these Cold War coups and interventions are briefly outlined below. These coups, proxy wars and foreign meddling often had devastating effects for the locals, bringing to power leaders who were undemocratic, dictatorial, brutal and corrupt. Grenada remained a member-state of the British Commonwealth after being granted independence in 1974. Patrice Lumumba of the Mouvement National Congolas was elected Prime Minister and then Parliament chose Joseph Kasa-Vubu of the rival party Alliance des Bakongo as President. In addition, both the US and USSR were involved in civil wars in Malaya (1948-60), Laos (1953-1975), Cambodia (1967-75) Ethiopia (1974-91), Lebanon (1975-90) and El Salvador (1980-92). For almost two centuries it had been a British colony. Funding of Proxy War partly comes from the warring countries and a major part comes from illegal activities. In 1951, Iran’s new prime minister, Mohammed Mossadegh, nationalised the country’s oil industry, which had been developed and owned by British interests. Without turning conflicts into a potentially catastrophic “hot war,” the two sides were able to pit their militaries and economies against each other, eventually leading to the fall of the Soviet Union. A total of 108 United Nations member states condemned the invasion of Grenada, calling it “a flagrant violation of international law”. Instead, both superpowers wielded global power and influence by manipulating smaller nations. With nowhere else to turn Lumumba went to the Soviet Union, a move which Joseph Kasa-Vubu believed was an act of treason and ordered Lumumba’s arrest. Incoming US president John F. Kennedy was unwilling to risk international embarrassment by maintaining support for the Dominican dictator. But just because the United States and the Soviet Union did not directly go to war on their own soil, that does not mean that the two sides never fought. Unfortunately for most of the African nations swept up in these conflicts, their domestic issues were of secondary concern to the US and USSR. Publisher: Alpha History to spread communism _________________ describes the process of a country bringing an industry or sector under government control or ownership. The military governed Brazil for the next two decades, assisted by American political backing and financial aid. Reagan gave this order without the approval or knowledge of British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, despite Grenada being a British Commonwealth nation. Iran (1953) Scenes from the Iranian coup of 1953 Guatemala was governed by military juntas for the remainder of the Cold War. The Cold War was when proxy wars became the most in vogue they have ever been. The Pinochet regime was supported by the US until 1976 when its human rights abuses were exposed to the world. President Joao Goulart (1961-64) was a moderate leftist who implemented democratic reforms, increased spending on education and attempted to tax foreign companies trading in Brazil. In early 1953, the CIA launched Operation Ajax, a campaign to discredit Mossadegh and force his dismissal by Iran’s reigning monarch, the Shah. In 1953 the CIA began training and supplying Guatemalan exiles. Structure Proxy Wars During The Cold War November 1955 - April 1975 SU USA supported anti-communists 1955 - 1975 Chinese Civil War Chilean Coup D'état Ethiopia War Korean War USA supported rebels with weapons and secret founding of CIA after many bombings and deaths: peace treaty During the Cold War, the USSR and the U.S. met on many battlefields by supporting opposing sides in many conflicts. Proxy Wars During the Cold War - Chapter Summary. In November 1965, a CIA-backed coup d’etat brought General Joseph Mobutu to power in the Congo. Brazil had fought with the Allies during World War II, receiving US military equipment and considerable financial aid. Cold War memory quiz – events 1945 to 1950, Cold War memory quiz – events 1950 to 1959, Cold War memory quiz – events 1980 to 1991, Cold War memory quiz – terms and concepts (I), Cold War memory quiz – terms and concepts (II). Brazilian officers seized power at the beginning of April 1964, forcing Goulart to seek exile in Uruguay. These proxy wars on the African continent represent just a small sample of the global scale of the Cold War. A proxy war is … Soviet political interference in eastern European nations was a contributing factor to the Cold War and the formation of an Iron Curtain separating Eastern and Western Europe. Facing opposition from the Belgian-controlled Congolese military, Lumumba sought aid and weapons from the Soviet Union. An estimated 100,000 lives were lost in the crisis and many more during the reign of Mobutu. For more information, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. The Cold War also shaped the political development of African countries south of the Equator. Soviet forces did not withdraw until mid-1946, under pressure from the US. His government was replaced by a repressive military dictatorship headed by General Augusto Pinochet. The first attempt failed and the country devolved into five years of instability. The formation of the Petrobras oil company gave the Brazilian government a monopoly over the nation’s sizeable oil reserves. Belgian military officers and CIA operatives began working together to unseat Lumumba. To maintain order Lumumba went to the UN who did deploy troops but they would not intervene when two states succeeded from the Congo. The Brazilians used this aid to industrialise and jump-start their underdeveloped economy. During the Cold War, the need to prevent such a full-scale war became extremely important due to the fear of mutually assured destruction. The Republic held its first democratic elections in 1962 but succumbed to three years of power struggles and political instability. Between 1982 and 1984 the CIA handed more than $US50 million to these counter-revolutionaries, known as the Contras. The US and USSR did not go to war between 1945 and 1991, however, both superpowers used their assets and agencies to influence the political development of smaller countries. This rang alarm bells in Washington, leading to a CIA-funded propaganda campaign to undermine and discredit Allende. Kennedy cut aid to Trujillo and imposed economic sanctions on the Dominican Republic. Arbenz was forced to resign and flee, leaving the government in the hands of military officers led by Castillo Armas. Date published: September 20, 2020 Most concerning to Washington was Allende’s plan to nationalise Chilean industries, including several American-owned copper mines. During the Cold War, several democratically elected leaders were replaced with puppet governments, military juntas or dictators. Some of these Cold War coups and interventions are briefly outlined below. The United States tried to use proxy wars to contain communism, as they did in Guatemala by sponsoring a coup. Because of these conflicts, numerous nations in central, eastern and southern Africa were destabilized economically, politically, and socially. These included promises of political recognition and backing, promises of financial aid (such as the Marshall Plan), bilateral and multilateral treaties, economic and trade agreements, and the provision of military training, weapons and equipment. In May 1961, Trujillo was assassinated by rebels in receipt of some CIA support. Communist China became heavily involved in Africa in the 1960s, forging trade links, building large infrastructure projects and railways, and supplying arms and equipment to liberation movements across the continent. We are entering a new era of proxy war, and thus the indirect approach, for several reasons. When Belgium granted the Republic of the Congo independence in 1960 they hoped that the Belgians within the country would keep their positions and maintain some control. Joseph-Desire Mobutu was made army chief of staff, but still the mutiny only intensified. Countries that endured Cold War-related regime change included Tibet (1950), Iraq (1958), Cuba (1960), Bolivia (1970), Uganda (1971), Argentina (1976), Pakistan (1977), Afghanistan (1978), Iran (1979), the Central African Republic (1979) and Turkey (1980). In 1950, the Nationalist regime passed the Suppression of Communism Act. During the Cold War, fear of the catastrophic outcome of a nuclear war prevented the U.S. and the USSR from openly going to war against each other. One of the most infamous Cold War coup d’etats occurred in the South American nation of Chile. But proxy wars should not be seen as synonymous with the Cold War. On September 11th 1973, Chilean military officers backed by the CIA overthrew Allende. Why did the United States and USSR engage in proxy wars during the Cold War? Ubico gave free rein to American companies in Guatemala, leading to low wages and the mistreatment of local workers. This is a list of proxy wars.Major powers have been highlighted in bold. The United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR) did not go to war with each other between 1945 and 1991. During his short time in power, Allende initiated land reform projects, authorised the lifting of wages and increased spending on healthcare and education. When they refused, he approached the U.S. who also refused because they believed that Lumumba had communist leanings. This site is created by Alpha History and contains 311,904 words in 408 pages. In 1952, Arevalo’s successor, Jacobo Arbenz, initiated a program of land reform, seizing more than one million acres of farmland. Arevalo implemented a series of social reforms, dubbed “spiritual socialism”. Like its neighbour Cuba, the Republic was strongly influenced by the United States. Guatemala is a small Central American nation, sandwiched between Mexico and Honduras. 4. During the Cold War Washington sent American troops into Vietnam (1965-75), the Dominican Republic (1965), Lebanon (1982), Grenada (1983) and Panama (1989). Lumumba asked the UN forces to help get the secessionist states under control. Its first democratically elected prime minister, Patrice Lumumba, was an anti-colonialist who sought to reduce Western influence in his country. Between 1927 and 1979, Nicaragua was ruled by members of the Somoza family, whose loyalty to Washington and American capitalists was matched only by their greed and corruption. Citation information In the past, proxy wars have been fought through the use of third parties in order to prevent a full-scale war. Allende stood several times for the Chilean presidency, coming close to victory in 1958. This was followed by decades of political turmoil and shifting governments. Between 1930 and 1961, the Dominican Republic was ruled by US-backed strongman Rafael Trujillo. Letting stand-ins fight was, ironically, the safest way to wage hot wars during the period of the Cold War. The Cold War is now known for a number of proxy wars in which both the Soviet Union and the United States would support one side or the other in conflicts around the world. Proxy wars in Nicaragua and Angola. 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